Program of Studies: 2017-2018
i.Pentateuch: Covenant Spirituality
Creation is a theophany of God. Man and woman are the stewards of the entire creation under the patronage of the Creator. Fall of man and the effect of sin: personal, social and cosmic. Promise of salvation and election of Israel: people of the covenant. Covenant Code: infidelity of Israel and fidelity of Yahweh. Israel’s realization: Yahweh is Liberator as well as Creator. The Patriarchs: messengers of Yahweh in guiding the people of God. Glimpse of Deuteronomic history.
Blenkinsopp, Joseph, Pentateuch: An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible, Doubleday Dell Pubs Group Inc, New York, 1992; ID, Treasures of Old & New: Essays in the Theology of the Pentateuch, Doubleday Dell Pubs Group Inc, New York, 2004; Brown Raymond E., et al., eds., The New Jerome Biblical commentary, TPI, Bangalore, 1995; Campbell Antony F & O’Brien Mark A., Rethinking the Pentateuch: Prolegomena to the Theology of Ancient Israel, Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, 2005; Exell Joseph S., The Biblical Illustrator, Vol 1, Genesis, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Gunkel Hermann, Genesis, M.E. Biddle Trans., Mercer University Press, Georgia, 1994; Kizhakkeyil Sebastian, The Pentateuch: An Exegetical Commentary, St. Pauls, Bandra, 2009;; Martini Caro Maria, Abraham our Father in Faith, Mary TeresildeSkerry Tr., Gujarat SahityaPrakash, Anand, 1992; McDermott John J., Reading the Pentateuch: A Historical Introduction, Paulist Press, New York, 2002.
ii. Prophetic Spirituality and its Relevance for Religious Today
Hebrew prophets were unique for more than one reason. They were the guardians of the covenant community of Yahweh. They functioned as the conscience of the Israelite society. Being the ‘mouth piece of God,’ they stood before the people advocating the socio-religious ideals and exhorted the people to march towards a just and righteousness society. The prophetic message of the Hebrew prophets have great appeal even for today, especially for those who say ‘yes’ to God’s call. This course on “Prophetic Spirituality of the Hebrew Prophets and its relevance for the Religious Life Today” will analyze the prophetic message in the light of today’s religious life. Prophetic spirituality of vocation and mission; sin and repentance; covenant; justice and righteousness; understanding our sufferings and Theology of prophetic leadership are some areas of our interest.
Allen, L.C., Jeremiah, OTL, London: T&T Clarke, 2008; Aune, D.E., Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans, 1983; Brown, R.E., et al., eds. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Bangalore: TPI, 1995; Brueggemann, W., A Commentary of the Book of Jeremiah, Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1988; Ceresko, A.R., Introduction to Old Testament: A Liberative Perspective, New York: Orbis Books, 2001; Sankarathil, J., Towards a Prophetic Spirituality of Religious Life, Bangalore: ATC, 1999. Vawter, B. and L. J. Hoppe, A New Heart: A Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel, ITS, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991; Von Rad Gerhard, The Message of the Prophets, SCM Press, London, 1976.
iii. Spirituality of the Psalms
Meaning and Terminology.Literary Dimension: Nature – Origin – Difficulties – Division – Numbering – Authorship – Superscriptions – Types/Classification. God-Dimension: Psalms as Word of God – Psalms as Witness to God – Psalms as Prayer Runways to God – Prayer Book of the Bible – Problem-psalms. Christ-Dimension: Jesus the “Marvelous Singer of the Psalms” – Christological Re-reading. Church-Dimension: Title – NT/Fathers of the Church Quotation – Antiphon – Psalmic Prayer – Prayer of the Church – Liturgy of the Hours. Personal – Dimension: Personalizing the Psalms – Psalter a School of Prayer – Practical Guidelines for a Fruitful and Active Prayer of the Psalms.
HOSSFELD, F.-L., Psalms: 3 Volumes, Minneapolis 2011.TERRIEN, S., The Psalms, Eerdmans, 2003; BRUEGGEMANN, W., The Message of the Psalms, Minneapolis, 1984; WESTERMANN, C., Praise and Lament in the Psalms, Atlanta, 1981; WEISER, A., The Psalms, SCM Press, Philadelphia, 1962; WESTERMANN, C., The Living Psalms, London, 1984; BROWN, W., Seeing the Psalms, Louisville 2002; STUHLMULLER, K., Psalms 1& 2, Michael Glazier, Wilmingotn, 1983; BOTZ, P., Runways to God: The Psalms as Prayer, Collegeville, 1979. FERNANDES, S., God as Rock in the Psalter, Frankfurt 2013.
iv. Spirituality of the Synoptic Gospels
The first three canonical Gospels (Mark, Mathew, and Luke) are known as Synoptic Gospels since they share a generally common presentation of the events of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection. The term “synoptic” comes from the Greek words syn (with or together) and optos (seeing), meaning that these three Gospels “see events together or alike”, running from Jesus’ baptism at the hands of John the Baptist to the report of women who found the tomb of Jesus empty, in spite of certain differences and difficulties in interpreting and understanding, the central message of these Gospels is discipleship: The Master calling and accompanying His disciples on their spiritual journey.
Brown Raymond, The Birth of the Messiah, Doubleday & Co., New York, 1977; ID. An Introduction to the New Testament, New York 1997; Kee H. Clark, Understanding the New Testament, Claretian Publications, Quezon City, 1987; Knopp Robert, Finding Jesus in the Gospels, Ave Maria Press, Indiana, 1989; Lagrange M.J., The Gospel of Jesus Christ, I & II, TPI, Bangalore, 1992; Luke K., Companion to the Bible Vol. II: New Testament, TPI, Bangalore, 1988; Maniparampil L., Synoptic Gospels, Claretian, Bangalore, 2004; McCarthy Flor, Windows of the Gospel, ATC, Bombay, 1993; Pathrapankal J., Dimensions of the Word, Dharmaram, Bangalore, 2000; Perkins Pheme, New Testament Introduction, St. Paul Publications, Bandra, 1992; Podimattam Felix, Consecrated Life, Delhi 2008; Pulickal J., Jesus: the Dynamic Way: Towards the Ministry for the Least, the Last, and the Lost, Claretian, Bangalore, 1999; Puthussery P.S., Discipleship: A Call to Suffering and Glory, Pontificia Universit? Urbaniana, Rome, 1987; Sesadima Sunil, Discipleship in St. Mark’s Gospel, A Call to Follow Him Up To His Glory, Delhi 2012.
Fr. Wilson D’souza OFM Cap.
Discipleship is a relationship. In his gospel the beloved disciple shares with us his deep interpersonal relationship with the Master. Besides, he places before us the pedagogy of his Master, i.e., how He accompanies different weak characters and enables them to grow in their interpersonal relationship with Him: disciple looking from a distance (Samaritan woman); disciple coming at night (Nicodemus); disciple sitting at the feet (Mary Magdalene); disciple reclining on the bosom (John); disciple/s standing at the foot of the cross (Mary, Mary Magdalene, John); disciple assuming the mission of the Master (Peter) and, as a result, disciple casting out demons.Bibliography
Amaladoss M., The Asian Jesus, Orbis Books, New York, 2006; Barclay, William, The Gospel of St. John, Bangalore, 1994; Barrett, C.K., The Gospel of John and Judaism, SPCK, London, 1975; Brown, Raymond, Gospel acc. to St. John, St Paul Publications, Bandra, 1988; Bultmann Rudolf, The Gospel of John: A Commentary, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1971; Coloe Mary L., God Dwells with Us: The Temple Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel, Liturgical Press, Minnesota, 2001; Crasta P., Spiritual Accompaniment according to St. John: The Beloved Directee, ATC, Bangalore, 2011; Dodd C.H., The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, Cambridge Uni. Press, Cambride, 1970; Koester Craig R., The Word of Life: A Theology of John’s Gospel, Grand Rapids, Michigan-Cambridge, 2008; Kolly Anthony J. and Moloney Francis J., Experiencing God in the Gospel of John, Paulist Press, New York, Jew Jersey, 2003; Raj Irudaya, The Samaritan Mission of Jesus, St. Peter’s Pontifical Institute, Bangalore, 2006; Schnackenburg Rudolf, Gospel acc. to St. John, New York, 1987; Wes Howard-Brook, Becoming Children of God: John’s Gospel and Radical Discipleship, Orbis Books, Maryland, New York, 1994.
vi. Spirituality of the Acts of the Apostles
The Acts of the Apostles is the work of Luke the Antiochene, the author of the third Gospel, forming the sequel of all Jesus did and taught in the Gospel, showing the spread of the Good News from Palestine to Rome. The author lays due emphasis on the ongoing work of the Church as the proof that God’s plan of salvation, working out through the Church. The theme of the expansion of the Covenant-relationship to include the Gentiles is central to the Acts, with the story of the roman soldier, Cornelius, and his conversion standing at the centre of the book.
Barclay William, The Acts of the Apostles: The Daily Study Bible, TPI, Bangalore, 1994; Gangel O. Kenneth, Holman New testament Commentary: Acts, Holman Pub., Nashville, 1998; Haenchen E., The Book of Acts of the Apostles, Basil Blackwell, Oxford 1971; Hargreaves J., A Guide to Acts, ISPCK, New Delhi, 1990; Jackson F.J. and Lake Kirsopp, eds., the Acts of the Apostles, Vol. I-V, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1979; Kee H. Clark, Understanding the New Testament, Claretian Pub, Quezon City, 1987; Kurz William S., The Acts of the Apostles:Collegeville Bible Commentary, St. Pauls, Bandra, 2001; Munck Johannes, The Acts of the Apostles, Doubleday, New York, Powell I., The Amazing Acts, Michigan, 1971; Rapske B., The Book of Acts: In its First Century Setting, Michigan, 1994; Williams C.S.C., A Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles, London, 1993.
vii. Pauline Spirituality
What does it mean to be spiritual? Paul’s Life with special emphasis on Damascus Experience; Paul as missionary and Pastor; The shape of Paul’s own spirituality: Prayer, Proclamation of the Gospel (Paul’s Gospel), Devotion to Scripture, Corporate worship, Disciple making, Holiness/Holy living, Spiritual Giftedness, Pastoral Care/Shepherding (Paul’s Ecclesiology), Suffering/Paul’s Passion for Christ (Paul’s Christology).
BARRET, C. K., Paul: An Introduction to His Thought, London, 1994; DUNN, J. D. G., The Theology of Paul, Grand Rapids, 1998; ID, ed., The Cambridge Companion to St Paul, UK, 2003.; FITZMYER, J. A., According to Paul: Studies in the Theology of the Apostle, New York, 1992; LOVERING, H. E. Jr., & SUMNEY L.J., Theology and Ethics in Paul and His Interpreters, Nashville, 1996; MARTYN J. L., Theological Issues in the Letters of Paul, Nashville, 1997; WATSON F., Paul, Judaism and Gentiles: Beyond the New Perspective, Michigan, 2007; WENHAM D., Paul: Follower of Jesus or Founder of Christianity? Cambridge, 1995.
i. Christology: a Franciscan Perspective
Being the son of a very rich merchant, as a vibrant youth of Assisi, the focus of Francis was in money-making and merry-making. Then, as Thomas of Celano says: “The hand of the Lord therefore came upon him and a change was wrought by the right hand of the Highest…” (1 Cel 2), the light from above came upon him. It was the message that he received from the Crucified Lord in the little church of San Damiano that really touched him and changed his life-pattern. From then on, he began to spend his time in the company of his New Master, in whose intimacy he grew. Therefore, his Christology is nothing but a sharing of his personal experience that he imbibed sitting at the feet of his Guru, reading and personalizing His Message from the Scriptures.
Armstrong J. Regis, et al eds., Francis of Assisi: Early Documents vols. 1-3 (specially LM, 1& 2 Cel, L3C), New City Press, New York, London-Manila, 2001; Boff Leonardo, Passion of Christ, Passion of the World, Orbis Books, New York, 1987; ID, Holy trinity, Perfect Community, Orbis Books, New York, 2000; Caroli E., a cura di, “Gesù Cristo”, Fonti Francescane, Editrici Francescane, Padova, 2004; Doyle Eric, Disciple and Master, Franciscan Insitute, New York, 1983; Pompei A., Dizionario Francescano; McElrath Damian, Franciscan Christology, Franciscan Institute, New York, 1980; Ratzinger Joseph : Benedict XVI, The Pardon of Assisi, Edizione Porziuncola, Assisi, 2006; Sciamanna Enrico, The Tau: The Origins and Franciscan Tradition of the Symbol, Bolton Catherine trans., Editrice Minerva, Assisi, 2005; Short William J., Poverty and Joy: The Franciscan Tradition, Orbis Books, New York, 2004.
Mary and her important place in God’s plan of salvation; Mary in the Scriptures and in Christian Tradition; Mary in the Teaching of the II Vatican Council: Christocentric and Ecclesiotypical Mariology; Mary as the archetype of the Church. Meaning and Message of Mariological Dogmas for Christian Life: Divine Motherhood, Immaculate Conception, Virginity and Assumption; Mary in the cult of the Church and in Ecumenical Perspective. Mary the perfect disciple; May from a Franciscan Perspective.
Brown Raymond E., May in the New Testament, TPI, Bangalore, 2004; Neuner Joseph, Mary Mother of the Saviour, TPI, Bangalore, 2004; Samy R.K. ed., Mary in Our Search for Fullness of Life, NBCLC, Bangalore, 2006; Rahner Karl, Mary Mother of the Lord, Herder, New York, 1964; Sara Jane ed., Mary – The Complete Resource, New York, 2009; Schillebeckx Edward, Mary: Mother of Redemption, Sheed and Ward, London, 1964.
iii. Theology of the Church: A Franciscan Perspective
Francis of Assisi lived at a time when the Church needed true awakening in every sphere of life: moral, spiritual, evangelical, and apostolic. Simple as he was, Francis took quite literally the message from the San Damiano Crucifix as well as that of the Gospel on the Feast of St. Mathias. His mission of rebuilding the Church was told to him by the Lord at San Damiano, and the manner of fulfilling this mission was revealed to him on the Feast of St. Mathias.
In achieving the ecclesiastical reformation in the light of the teaching of the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, Francis stayed with the Church and within the Church. He exhorted his brothers time and again to be loyal to the Church. Therefore, in the Divine Office of St. Francis, composed by Julian of Speyer, he is rightly called: “Francis, valiant catholic, perfectly apostolic” (FAED p.327).
This course covers: The Church at the time of Francis, the Monastic Reforms that happened during that period, the Fourth Lateran Council, the charism of St. Francis, and Franciscan Contribution to the Church Reform Today.
Armstrong Regis J. et al., Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, Vols 1-3, New York city Press, New York-London-Manila, 1999; Boff Leonard, St. Francis, The Cross Road Publishing company, New York, 1982; Boff Leonard and Buhlman Walter eds., Build up my Church: Franciscan Inspiration for and from the Third World;Crosby M., Finding Francis: Following Christ, Catholic Association Press, Canada, 2007; Flood David., The Birth of a Movement, Franciscan Press, Chicago, 1975; Lapsanski D., The First Franciscans and the Gospel, Franciscan Herald Press, 1976.
Franciscan and Clarian Spirituality
i. A survey of Christian Spirituality
In order to attain the profound depths of Christian Spirituality one necessarily needs know about various stages of its evolution and history. In this course we focus on the evolution of the Catholic Tradition, its beginnings in the Scriptures and in lives of the Early Fathers of the Church, the early forms of Religious life and their gradual flowering into pluriform manifestations into well-established Religious Orders and Institutes through the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Modern and the Contemporary times enriching the Church and the World.
Aumann, Jordan., Christian Spirituality in the Catholic Tradition, Ignatius Press/Sheed& Ward, 1985; Pourrat, P., Christian Spirituality, trans., W.H. Mitchell, 3 vols., Newman Press, Westminster,1953; Bouyer, L., The Spirituality of the New Testament and the Fathers, trans., M. P. Ryan, Desclee, New York, 1960.
ii. Historical Background of Francis and Clare: Family and Social Setting
This course aims at helping the participants to understand these two ever-inspiring personalities of the middle ages in the light of the historical background in which they discovered and lived the unique vocation to which they were called by the Lord. No one can understand accurately the spirituality, mission, and vision of St. Francis and Clare, if one does not understand the socio-cultural, socio-political, and socio-religious setting of their time. Therefore, throughout the course an effort will be made to help the participants to have a glimpse of the historical setting so as to equip them to have an integrated vision of their spirituality. At the end of the course a small written work and an oral exam is expected.
BARTOLI M.,Clare of Assisi, Frances Teresa trans., Franciscan Press, Quincy, 1993; BROWN R., The Roots of St. Francis: A Popular History of the Church in Assisi and Umbria before St. Francis; as Related to his Life and Spirituality. Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, 1982;Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, I-III, R. J. Armstrong – J. A. W. Hellmann – W. J Shorteds., New York, 1999-2001; HEER F., “The Medieval Man and his Culture”, in Brother Francis An Anthology of Writings by and about St. Francis of Assisi, L. Cunningham, ed., Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1971, p. 10-21; MERLO G. G., In the Name of St. Francis, Franciscan Institute Publications, New York, 2009; NIEMIER R., In the Footsteps of Francis and Clare, St. Antony Messenger Press, Cincinnati, 2006; RODDY J., “Francis of Assisi: The Hippie Saint”, in Brother Francis: An Anthology of Writings by and about St. Francis of Assisi, L. Cunningham, ed., Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1971, p. 3-9; SABAATIER P., “Saint Francis as Religious Revolutionary”, in Brother Francis: An Anthology of Writings by and about St. Francis of Assisi, L. Cunningham, ed., Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1971, p. 22-31.
iii. Franciscan Sources: Early Documents
The three areas of this study are: 1. The Writings of Francis in short. 2. The Narrative Source of the Life of Francis; the problems in comparison with one source and another. We strive to reach at the truth of accounts that we study. We ask: “Are these Sources victims of prejudice of the authors in one way or another? 3. Sources which pertain to General Franciscan History – we also touch upon the Chronicles of the Order.
Our cut off point is the end of the 14th century. These Sources are the building blocks from which results our knowledge of Francis. These writings pertain to a species of writings known as Hagiography. We shall look at when they were written and the influences on these writings. We shall go back to the memory of the Franciscan Movement.
Flood David and Matura Thadee, The Birth of a Movement, Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, 1975; Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, Regis J. Armstrong et al. eds., Vols I-III, New City Press, New York, London, Manila, 2001; Mancelli Raoul, St. Francis of Assisi, Franciscan Herald Press, Illinois, 1988; Rotzetter, Van Dijk, Matura Thadee, Gospel Living: Francis of Assisi Yesterday and Today, ed., Elise Saggau, Franciscan Pathways, Franciscan Institute Publications, New York, 1992.
iv. The Life of St. Francis of Assisi
Study of the main events in the life of St. Francis in their social, cultural, religious and ecclesial setting: his family background, conversion, first companions, writing of the Rule, life in the Spoleto Valley, mission to the Saracens, love for creatures, problem due to poverty, conflict with the confreres, resignation from office, La Verna Experience, Writing of the Testament, composing of the canticle of Br. Sun, Death and Canonization. Relevance of Francis Today: Clare and her Sisters.
Chesterton C.K., St. Francis of Assisi, Image Books, New York, 1824; Commercium, Work Book of Franciscan Studies, Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, 1997; Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, Regis I. Armstrong et al eds., Vols I-3, New City Press, New York, London, Manila, 2001; Fortini Aldo, Francis of Assisi, Crossroad, New York, 1992; Karrer Otto, St. Francis of Assisi, The Legend and Lauds, Sheed and Ward, New York, 1948; Mancelli Raulo, St. Francis of Assisi, Franciscan Herald Press, Illinois, 1988; Omar Engelbert, St. Francis of Assisi, Franciscan Herald Press, Illinois, 1965; Orland Enzo, Life and Time of Francis, Curtis Books, New York, 1967; Sabatier Paul, Life of St. Francis of Assisi, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1906.
v. The Writings of St. Francis of Assisi
Francis as Inspirer, Animator, Writer, and Model to Evangelical Life: Varieties of Writings, Context and Content of Writings; the Basic Themes, Spirituality and Challenges, and Forming of Franciscan Person.
Dalarun Jacques, Francis of Assisi and the Feminine, The Franciscan Institute, New York, 2006; Dennis Marie, St. Francis and the Foolishness of God, Maryknoll, New York, 1993; Doornick N.G. Van, Francis of Assisi: A Prophet of our Times, Franciscan Herald Press, Illinois, 1979; Fahy Benen, The Writings of St. Francis of Assisi, Franciscan Herald Press, Illinois, 1963; Hardick Lothar, The Admonitions of St. Francis of Assisi, Franciscan Herald Press, Illinois, 1982; Khan N. Nguyen Van, The Teacher of His Heart (Jesus Christ in the Thought and Writings of St. Francis) Franciscan Institute, New York, 1997; Lapsanski V. Duene, Evangelical Perfection (an Historical Examination of the Concept of the Early Franciscan Sources) The Franciscan Institute, New York, 1977; Meyer James, the Words of St. Francis, Franciscan Herald Press, Illinois, 1996.
vi. Franciscan Spirituality: Systematic
Franciscan Spirituality is nothing but personalizing the “Joy of the Gospel” (EvangeliiGaudium) as Francis of Assisi did in order to realize ‘what a person is before God, that he/she is, and nothing more’(Adm XIX :2). Concrete human experience, in an existential and historical context, stands at the beginning of a spiritual journey, passing from superficiality and exclusion to inward depth and inclusive embrace of the universe. In this process Jesus Christ is personalized in Francis and the Gospel is fulfilled in him (1 Cel 84).
The study involves a fresh understanding of what ‘Spirituality’ is, leading to a better grasp of what ‘Christian spirituality’ stands for. Seen within the gamut of the multiplicity of spiritualities within the Christian tradition, the existence of Franciscan Spirituality among other distinctive spiritualities is authenticated. Finally, by tracing the journey of faith in Francis, the student is led to discover how the Gospel was applied by Francis to his every-day life and, how it can be done in one’s own life today.
ASPURZ Lazaro Iriarte de, The Franciscan Calling, trans., Carole M.Kelly, Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1974; ; MATURA Thaddee, Francis of Assisi: The Message in His Writings, trans., Paul Barret, St Bonaventure University, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 1997; ROTZETTER Anton et al., Gospel Living: Francis of Assisi Yesterday and Today, ed., Elise Saggau, Franciscan Pathways, St Bonaventure University NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 1992; VAN-KHAN Norbert Nguyen, The Teacher of His Heart: Jesus Christ in the Thought And Writings of St Francis. trans., ed., Hagman, St Bonaventure University, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 1994; VAUCHEZ Andre., The Spirituality of the Medieval West: The Eight to the Twelfth Century, Kalamazoo, Michigan: Cistercian Publications, 1993; VORREUX Damien, First Encounter with Francis of Assisi, trans., Paul Scwartz, Paul Lachance, St Bonaventure University, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 201.
vii. Clare of Assisi: In Sources
This is an in-depth study of sources of St. Clare of Assisi in four parts: a. the actual knowledge that we have of Clare; b. the Sources of the spirituality of Clare; c. a study of more significant biographical sources of the saint; d. an in-depth study of the life, spirit, and ideal of Clare as the Foundress and model in the monastery of San Damiano till her last breath in the year 1253.
Armstrong Regis J., The Lady: Clare of Assisi: early Documents, New City Press, New York, 2005; Bartoli Marco, St. Clare Beyond the Legend, Frances T. Downing, trans, St. Antony Messenger Press, Ohio, 2003; Carney Margaret, The First Franciscan Woman: Clare of Assisi & Her Form of Life, Franciscan Press, Quincy, 1993; Fernandes Simon Rico, Radiant Affectivity in Francis and Clare, FISI, Bangalore, 1993; Hone Mary Francis, ed., Clare Centenary Series, vol. I-VIII, Franciscan Institute Publications, New York, 1993; Mueller Joan, Clare’s Letters to Agnes, : texts and Sources, the Franciscan Institute, New York, 2001; Peterson Ingrid, Clare of Assisi: A Biographical Study, Franciscan Press, Quincy, 1993; Vadakkekara Benedict, Bright As Ever: St. Clare of Assisi, Media House, Delhi, 1998.
viii. Clare of Assisi: Mirror and Mystic: Disciple: Extension of the Master
This course consists of: a short description of the life and vocation; constant touch with the master and his spiritual animation; how she becomes Bride of Christ through her deep spirit of contemplation; her Life in San Damiano: as Foundress, Abbess, Sister, and Mother; how she can become an inspiration for us today
ARMSTRONG Regis J., The Lady: Clare of Assisi: Early Documents, New City Publications, New York-London-Manila, 2006; ID, Francis and Clare of Assisi, the Complete Works, Pauline Press, New York, 1982; ID, Francis of Assisi: Early Documents in 3 Vols. New City Press, New York-London-Manila, 2001-2003; BARTOLI Marco, St. Clare Beyond the Legend, Frances T. Downing, trans., St. Antony Messenger Press, Ohio, 2003; CARNEY Margaret, The First Franciscan Woman: Clare of Assisi & Her Form of Life, Franciscan Press, Quincy, 1993; HABIG Marion, ed., Francis of Assisi-Omnibus of Sources, Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, 1973; HONE M. F., ed., Towards the Discovery of Clare of Assisi, Clare Formed by Francis, Clare Centenary Series, Vol. I-VIII, Franciscan Institute Publications, New York, 1992-1996.
ix. Third Order Regular Rule: An Enriching and Empowering Grace
As Franciscans, our evangelical life is a form of religious life in which there is no dichotomy between contemplation and action. Our spirituality is rooted in the Incarnation, i.e., God desiring to be one with us from all eternity. Our life in community provides us with opportunities to witness as a visible sign of love, unity, forgiveness, hope, faith and service. The Franciscan movement, initiated by Francis himself, gave birth to three Orders that comprise the largest religious family in the Church. Its foremost vision and thrust is to follow the Gospel radically and single mindedly. The Third Order has its roots in Francis himself, which displays a wide expression of charisms and distinguishes in its works of mercy and service. The Third Order Regular sprang from the penitential movement which predated Francis. It has its roots in penance which characterizes the spirituality of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis. Both the Third Order Regular and Secular have a Biblical foundation of penitential spirituality in its truest sense.
Armstrong Regis and Brady Ignatius C., Francis and Clare: The Complete Works, FISI, Bangalore, 1992;Gordan of Giano, XIIIth Century Chronicles, Placid Hermann, trans., Chicago, 1961; International Brothers and Sisters of the Third Order regular, pub., Therule of the Third Order of St. Francis Throughout History; Pazzelle Raffaelle, The Third Order Regular of St. Francis, Brief History, Ronald J. Faley, trans., Rome, 1998; ID., St. Francis and the Third Order, Franciscan Press, Quincy University, USA, 1982; ID., A Commentary to the Rule of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis, Franciscan University Press, Ohio, 2003; ID., The Franciscan Sisters, Aiden Mullaney, trans., Franciscan University Press, Ohio, 1993; Peano Pierre, The Franciscan Sisters: Their Origins, History and Constant Values, Nancy Celeschi trans., Spirit and Life of the IFC-TOR, pub., Rome, 1998.
x. SFO Spirituality
Saint Francis of Assisi left us “a Dream to dream and a Journey to challenge everyone”. All Franciscans are inspired by him to follow Christ. The Secular Franciscan Order, established by St. Francis of Assisi early in the thirteenth century, belongs to this family. In their secular state, members permanently commit themselves to live the Gospel as Francis did, following his Rule approved by the Pope. The OFS is open to the laity and the diocesan clergy. The Secular Franciscan Order, formerly known as the Third Order of St. Francis, is an official Order within the Catholic Church. The members of OFS do not live in communities. But led by the Spirit of the Lord, they strive for perfect charity, living their everyday life in the world. However, they gather together in fraternities on a regular basis. By profession, they pledge themselves to live the Gospel in the manner of St. Francis and promise to follow the Rule of Life approved and confirmed by Pope Paul VI on June of 1978.
Ciampi Luke M., Watering the Seed: For Formation and Growth in Franciscanism, Franciscan Herld Press, Chicago, 1976; Corstanje Auspicius van, The Third Order for Our Times, Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, 1974; Fernandes A. Jossy, The Secular Franciscan Order in the Light of the Code of Canon Law of1983, Rome, 1988; Grant Zachary ed., The Rule of the Secular Franciscan Order: With Catechism and Instructions, Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, 1981; Lobo Vincent, The Gospel Way of Life, Assisi Press, Mangalore, 1980; O’Rourke Daniel, How to Live in a Layman’s Order, Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, 1964.
xi. Franciscan Spirituality: an Indian Perspective
The course aims at showing the affinity that exists between the Indian Spiritual Tradition and the Franciscan Spiritual Tradition. The Fanciscans in India are the inheritors of three rich spiritual streams, namely, Indian, Christian, and Franciscan. All three traditions are complementary. The Indian ideal of Religious Life blends very well with the lifestyle which St. Francis visualized for himself and his companions – living among people and going through the world as pilgrims and strangers. The course aims at creating an appreciation for the positive elements in the Indian Spiritual Tradition and the ways of integrating them into the Franciscan Life: Sense of the sacred in all things, cosmic fraternity, cosmocentric spirituality, and caring for the environment are common Indian, Christian, and Franciscan Traditions.
Abhishiktananda Swami, “The Depth Dimension of Religious Dialogue”, VJTR, 45 (1981); All India Consultation of Ashrams, “What is an Indian Christian Ashram: Statement 7th to 11th”, Word and Worship, 11 (1978); Amaldoss M., “Ashrams and Social Justice” Word and Worship, 15 (1982); Amalorpavadass D.S., “Ashram Aikya: Whence and Whither I and II”, Word and Worship, 17 (1984); Grant Sara, “Reflections on Hindu-Christian Dialogue in an Ashram Context”, Religion and Society, 26 (1979); ID, “The Eucharist, Ecumenism and Dialogue: A Letter from a Christian Ashram”, VJTR, 49 (1985); Griffiths Bede, “Christian Monastic Life In India”, Journal of Dharma, 3 (1978); ID, “The Ashram and Monastic Life” In Christo, 22, (1984); Hirudayam Ignatius, “Get-Together and Live-Together of Ashramites” Word and Worship, 11 (1978); Lederle Mathew, “Ashrams and Dialogue”, Word and Worship, 17 (1984); Taylor R.W., “From Khadi to Kavi: Towards a Typology of Christian Ashrams”, Religion and Society, 24 (1977); Vandana, “The Ashram Movement and the development of Contemplation” VJTR, 47 (1983); ID, “ Dialogue in and through Ashrams, Word and Worship, 19 (1998).
“This world you have made is a beautiful place. It tells the power of your love: we rejoice in the beauty of your world from the seas to the heavens above!” the positive and optimistic interpretation of the creation account in the book of Genesis, without exaggeration of the anthropocentric vocabulary therein, provides us the right ecological perspective. Today we live in an age of globalization and so our values are focused on economic growth and progress at the expense of the quality of life and environmental health. If we pursue these mistaken values the survival of the whole eco-system is threatened. We must adopt an environmental philosophy and perspective. This course invites the students to interpret creation from Christian and Franciscan vision. This demands a paradigm shift from anthropocentrism to biocentrism and cultivate an affinity and affection towards the entire creation.
Attfield R., The Ethics and Environmental Concern, New York, 1983; Baum G. &Ellsberg R., The Logic of Solidarity, New York, 1989; Berry T., The Dream of the Earth, sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1988; Fox Mathew, Original Blessing, Bear & Company, New Mexico, 1983; Kumar H.D., Modern Concepts of Ecology, New Delhi, 1991; Lodha R.M., Environmental Essays, New Delhi, 1991; Naess Arne, Ecology, Community and Lifestyle, Cambridge, 1989; Sessions George, ed., Deep Ecology for the Twenty-First Century, Boston, 1995.
xiii. Consecrated Life acc. to the Law of the Church
Consecrated Life acc. to the Law of the Church Concerns Part III of Book II of the Code of Canon Law which deals with Institutes of Consecrated Life and Apostolic. Our focus is on Institutes of Consecrated Life. We seek to understand who the Religious are in the light of the 1983 Code of Canon Law. Canon 207 paragraph 2 specifies who the Christians are who belong to the Institutes of Consecrated Life. While not belonging to the hierarchical structure of the Church, they form a vital charismatic part of the Church called as they are for a life of holiness through the evangelical counsels. We look at the formation of the members of the Institutes of Consecrated Life, the administration of the Institutes, their structures, obligations and rights of the members etc. Admission, membership, absence, exclaustration, dispensation from vows, departure and dismissal are some of the points dealt with during this course.
Coriden James A. et al. eds., The Code of Canon Law – A text and Commentary, Canon Law, Society of America, Paulist Press 1995, pp 450 – 525; Flanney Austin et al. eds., Light for My Path, Dublin 1983; Gallen Joseph F., Canon Law for Religious, Alba House, New York 1983; John P. et al., eds., New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law (Study edition), Paulist Press, New York, 2000, pp 741 – 842; Koluthara Varghese, Rightful Autonomy of Religious Institutes, Dharmaram Publications, Bangalore, 1994; Pazhampallil Thomas, Pastoral Guide: A Handbook on the Latin and Oriental Code of Canon Law, Vols. 3, New Delhi, 2004, pp 726 – 1004; Sheehy Gerard et al. eds., The Canon Law, Letter and Spirit, prepared by Canon Law Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Kent, 1995, pp 314 – 413;
ix. Justice Today: a Franciscan Perspective
The cry for justice is heard everywhere today, in a world replete with injustices. When we study the life of St. Francis of Assisi we find that his time was no different from our own. Led by the Lord, and inspired by the Gospel he chose the life of poverty, simplicity and brother-sisterhood in minority as an evangelical response to the injustices of his time. St. Francis is the answer to the issues of injustices today. He is the model for human liberation, peace and justice. He invites his followers to make their life an adequate response to the injustices of their time. Living a life ignoring the injustices of our time or being indifferent to them renders us only irrelevant as Franciscans today.
Boff, Leonardo, “Francis of Assisi and Liberation Theology,” in Tau vol. XVI, no. 1, March 1991, pp., 28-31. ID “Francis of Assisi and Liberation Theology,” in Tau vol. XVI, no. 1, March 1991, pp., 28-31. ID Saint Francis: A Model for Human Liberation, New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1981. Butler, Salvator, ed., We Were with St. Francis: An Early Franciscan Story,1967. Crosby, Michael H., Finding Francis, Following Christ, Maryknoll, Orbis Books: New York, 2007. Jankowski, Valentine, “Peace and Justice: The Spirituality of the Friar,” in Franciscan Documentation, vol. 4, no.15, 1995, pp., 19-30. Leclerc, Eloi, Francis of Assisi: Return to the Gospel, Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1983. Meyer, James, Social Ideals of St. Francis, 2nd ed., St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co., 1948.
Fr. Charles Furtado, OFM Cap.
i. Consecrated Life Today: Relevance and Witness Value
The Religious consecration is the full flowering of God’s call that every Christian receives from the eternity in the Sacraments of Initiation- Baptism, Confirmation and the Eucharist. Although the Religious life is not a sacrament like the Holy Matrimony or the Priestly Ordination, God consecrates every Religious who like Mary says,” fiat” by his/her voluntary profession, receives the willingness of the Religious to be fully available to God’s Plans for the salvation of the world and the humanity in and through the Church. Such full availability would entail the practice of the evangelical counsels- celibacy, poverty and obedience as practised by Christ for the sake of the Kingdom.
Canilang, Samuel H., The Consecration of the Religious, Claretian Publications, Quezon City, Philippines, 2005; Harmer, Catherine M., Religious Life in the 21st Century, The Pauline Sisters Bombay Society, Mumbai,1995; Carroll, Patrick L., Challenges to a Religious, The Liturgical Press, Collegeville,1979; Hinnebusch, Paul., Salvation History and the Religious Life, Sheed and Ward, New York,1966; Religious Life in the Light of Vatican II, compiled by the Daughters of St. Paul, Boston 1967; Malaviaratchi, Anthony., Initiation into Religious Life, Redemptorist Publications, Bangalore, 1993; Paredes, José Christo R.G., Theology of Religious Life Series, Claretian Publications, Bangalore 2005; Directives on Formation in Religious Institutes: Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, St. Paul Publications, Bombay, 1990; Parappally, Jacob., “Formation of Religious: Challenges of Vatican II and Post-Conciliar Times”, in Shaping Tomorrow’s Church: Formation of Priests and Religious for India, ed., Kurien Kunnumpuram, The Bombay Saint Paul Society, 2006.
ii. Psychological Dimension of Religious Life
This course consists of the following themes: The psychology of learning;creative visualization and meditation (Mark. 11: 22…); the awareness, labeling and appropriate expression of feelings; anger management and handling negative emotions; the dimensions, ways and levels of communication;fundamental techniques to handle people and ways to change them positively; how do I think and feel about myself: everyday journal/sharing.
Campbell Peter A. and McMahon Edwin M., Bio-Spirituality: Focusing as a Way to Grow, Loyola Press, Chicago, 1997; Cencini, Amedeo, The Sentiments of the Son: A Formative Journey in Consecrated Life, Pauline Publications, 2005; ID, Spiritual and Emotional Maturity, Pauline Publications, Kenya, 2006; Kunnumpuram Joe, The Miracle of Awareness, Media House. Delhi, 2001; Pai Rex A., Discernment: a Way of Life, Vaigarai Pub., Trichy, 2008; Vincent Sasi and Costello Timothy, Formation and transformation, ATC, Bangalore, 2010; Welch John, Spiritual Pilgrims: Karl Jung and Teresa of Avila, Paulist Press, New York, 1982; Whitehead James D. and Whitehead Evelyn E., The Shadows of the Heart: A Spirituality of the Painful Emotions, Crossroad, New York, 2000
iii. Prayer and Temperament
The dictum ‘grace is built on nature’ is very true. Human nature disfigured by sin is gradually transfigured by grace. In this process of healing, prayer plays a very important role. This ‘being with’ the Divine slowly divinizes the human, created in His image and likeness. But, this ‘being with’ the Divine is conditioned by the temperament of each individual. Therefore, one needs to know the one’s temperament so that one takes the necessary means (creates adequate atmosphere) to grow in one’s prayer-life, in one’s relationship with the Divine. It is important that the formators pay due attention to this factor offering different methods of prayer so that the formees choose and use one particular method that is apt to their God-given nature and grow in the spirit of prayer.
Cantalamessa R., The Eucharist: Our Sanctification, The Liturgical Press, Minnesota, 1993; Conroy, M., “Nurturing Spiritual Experiences”, Human Development, vol. 24. no. 3(2003); Forman M., Praying with the desert mothers, Liturgical Press, Minnesota, 2005; Goldbrunner J., Holiness is Wholeness, Pantheon, New York, 1955; Groeschel, B.J., Spiritual Passages: The Psychology of Spiritual Development, Claretian Publications, Bangalore, 2003; Hughes K.J., “Light in a Time of Darkness”, Human Development, 24.3 (2003); Johnson T.J., The Soul in Ascent: Bonaventure on Poverty, Prayer, and Union with God, Quincy, 2000; Keirsey D. and Bates M., Please Understand Me: Character and Temperament Types, Prometheus Nemesis, Del Mar, CA, 1984; Meyers I., Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type, Consulting Psychologist Press, Palo Alto, Calif., 1980; Michael.C. P. and Norrisey M. C., Prayer and Temperament: Different Prayer Forms for Different Personality Types, Wm.Byrd Press, Virginia, 1997; Murphy C. M., Belonging to God – A Personal Training Guide for the Deeper Catholic Spiritual Life, The Crossroad Publishing Company, New York, 2004; Podimattam F.M., Kenosis Spirituality: Paschal Path to Holiness, Claretian Publications, Bangalore, 2002.
iv. Spiritual Accompaniment-with a Franciscan Blend
Spiritual accompaniment (guidance) plays a vital role in the formation of an individual in his/her human and divine life. It isa walking with an individual on his/her life- journey and facilitating the person in discerning the plan of God, i.e., in affirming, confirming and reforming at different stages in life and to arrive at personal decisions basing on the threefold energies: divine (Word of God), Franciscan (writings of Francis + Clare), and human (psychology). The basic themes dealt with are: compassionate listening, evocative questioning, affirmation, body language, and practice in triads. To offer this service we need to prepare adequate number of enlightened and experienced spiritual companions in our jurisdictions (Congregations) who have tasted this grace (cf. VC 66).
Au.W., “Holistic Discernment”, Presence: A Journal of Spiritual Direction International, vol.11, no.1 (2005); Barry W.A and Connolly, W.J., The Practice of Spiritual Direction, Harper Collins, New York, 1982; Chester M.P., An Introduction to Spiritual Direction: A Psychological Approach for Directors and Directees, New Jersey, Paulist Press, 2004; Crasta P., Spiritual Accompaniment according to St. John: The Beloved Directee, ATC, Bangalore, 2010; ID “Formation and Franciscan Spiritual Accompaniment”, Franciscan Formation Today, Association of Franciscan Family (AFFI), India, 2011, 73-97; Douglas Julie M., Handbook for Spiritual Directors,Paulist Press, New Jersey, 1998; Gratton Carolyn, The Art of Spiritual Guidance, The Crossroad Pub. Company, New York, 2002; Groeschel B.J., Spiritual Passages: The Psychology of Spiritual Development, Claretian Publications, Bangalore 2003; Guenther Margaret, Holy Listening – The Art of Spiritual Direction, Longman and Todd Ltd., London, 1994; Leech Kenneth, Soul Friend – Spiritual Direction in the Modern World, Longman and Todd Ltd., London, 1994; Ruffing J.K., Spiritual Direction: beyond the beginnings, Paulist Press, Mahwah, 2000; Whitehead J.D. and Whitehead, E.E., Shadows of the Heart: A Spirituality of the Painful Emotions, New York, 2000.
v. Psycho-Spiritual Integration in Religious Life
Psychology and Spirituality intersect most pointedly in questions of human interiority and of the nature of the self. The human journey towards integration is continued not in isolation or by underestimating one aspect or the other. In the light of this conviction, this course, Psycho-Spiritual Integration in Spiritual Life, enables the participants to discover the various aspects of integration which are the keys to living in joyful wholeness as religious. After explaining the caption briefly, a detailed study of the theme is offered to the participants.
Cencini, Amedeo, The Sentiments of the Son: A Formative Journey in Consecrated Life, Pauline Publications, 2005; ID, Spiritual and Emotional Maturity, Pauline Publications, Kenya, 2006; Dixon dominic F., The Beautiful Christian Mind: Deliverance from Mental Illness, ATC, Bangalore, 2006; Kunnumpuram Joe, The Miracle of Awareness, Media House. Delhi, 2001; Nelson James B., The Intimate Connection: Male Sexuality, Masculine Spirituality, The Westminister Press, Philadelphia, 1988; Pai Rex A., Discernment: a Way of Life, Vaigarai Pub., Trichy, 2008; Vincent Sasi and Costello Timothy, Formation and transformation, ATC, Bangalore, 2010; Whitehead James D., and Whitehead Evelyn E., The Shadows of the Heart: A Spirituality of the Painful Emotions, Crossroad, New York, 2000.
vi. Psycho-Sexual Integration
Sexuality is an essential aspect of being human. Positive understanding of sexuality would enable us to engage in personal exploration into our lives and value the significance of growing into sexual maturity: accepting and embracing our sexual body and our relational lives. Being comfortable with our own sexual journey we would be free to channelize affective energies into our daily lives and relationships which deepen our spiritual life and ministry. Besides, one would learn to accompany others in their psycho-sexual journey.
Barry W.A., “Telling the Truth About Our Sexuality” Human development, 24/4 (2010) 44-48; Bass, Ellen & Laura Davis, The Courage to Heal, New York, Harper & Row, 1988; Cavanagh Michael, “The Impact of Psycho-sexual Growth on Marriage and Religious Life”, Human Development, 4/3 (1983)16-24; Ferder F. & Heagle, “Your Sexual Self: Pathway to Authentic Intimacy”, Ave Maria, Notre Dame, 1992; Burns James P., “Sexuality Formation for Church Leaders Towards a Healthy, Balanced Approach”, Human Development, 34,2 (2013) 23-29; Falkenhain J. Mark, “Living Celibacy: A Proposed Model for Celibacy Formation Programs”, Human Development, 43/2 (2013) 23-29; Faucett Robert J. & Faucett Carl Ann, Intimacy & Mid Life, New York, 1990; Kenel Mary E., “A Celibates Sexuality and Intimacy”, Human Development, 7/1 (1986) 14-19; McClone Kevin, “Sexual Health: a Christian Perspective”, Human Development, 32/1 (2011) 3-9; Sammon Séan D., “Sexuality and Celibate Chastity: Friends Not Foes”, Review for Religious, 65/4 (2006).
vii. NLP Optimism, Mood Design & Spirituality
This course introduces the participants to the methods of creative visualization, mind/heart tuning using Neuro Linguistic Programming, Mood Design and Hypnosis. It includes tools for taping the Creative Potentials, Comfort Zone Creation, Story Utilization for healing & life enhancing, Everyday Optimism, Art of Excellence for Business and Health Improvement Techniques. One is guided to be optimistic in order to become aware of the God-given wonders, powers within and without.
Strategies include mood nutrition, supplementation, psychological change, energy management, therapy sessions for healing the past and spiritual methods to get connected to God, Sacred/Comfort Zone-world and oneself.
Andreas Steve – Charles Faulkner, NLP The New Technology of Achievement, Positive Paperbacks, London, 1996; Antony John, Psychotherapies in Counselling. Anugraha Publications, Dindigul; Bandler Richard – Grinder John, Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming, Real People Press, 1979; González Luis Jorge, Psychology of Personal Excellence, Editorial Font, Monterrey, 1993; González Luis Jorge, Modelling on Jesus, Editorial Font, Monterrey, 1993; Lammers Willem, Logosynthesis: Healing with Words, Institute for logosynthesis, Maienfeld, 2015; Miller Liz, Mood Mapping: Plot your way to emotional health and happiness. Rodale, London, 2009.
viii. Formation and Mission: Every Grace is for Service
Mission is the heart of our Franciscan vocation. A Franciscan vocation is incomplete without its missionary dimension. Rightly, this course aims at inspiring the participants to unearth the missionary dimension of our Franciscan vocation and to apply it adequately to our Franciscan formation so as to help our formees to motivate themselves personally to opt for mission which is the heart of our Franciscan charism. As the partial fulfillment of the course, the participants are expected to do a written work and appear for an oral exam at the end of the course.
Congregation for Institutes of consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Potissimum Institutioni (Directives on Formation in Religious Institutes 2 Feb. 1990), AAS 82 (1990) 470-532; Daniel E.R.,The Franciscan Concept of Mission, St. Bonaventure University, New York, 1992; Hoeberichts J., Francis and Mission, in Franciscan Digest, 2/1 (1992) 43-58; Lehmann L., “Main Features of the Franciscan Understanding of Mission according to the Rule of 1221”, Franciscan Digest, 2/1 (1992) 1-18; Rotzetter A., “In Search of a New Mission Profile: A Basic Course on Mission as Source of Memory and Renewal”, Franciscan Digest, 9/1 (1999) 43-58; We are sent: A Program of Study on the Franciscan Mission Charism, FISI, Bangalore, 2002.
A method, a system, is a must in doing something worthwhile. Writing is a gift as well as an art. As a gift it is received and as an art it is cultivated. In this short course help is given to the students to develop the art of scientific writing: to choose an existential topic, to prepare a working schema, to collect material and to present it in a scientific way, after the brooding-period, with footnotes and bibliography.
Ahuja Ram, Research Methods, Rawat Publications, Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, 2006; Antony A. Joseph, Methodology for Research: Guide for Writing Dissertation, Theses, and Scientific Papers, TPI, Bangalore, 1986; Chackalackal Saju, Research Methodology, Dharmaram Publications, Bangalore, 2004; John Peter S. & Henry Jose, Methodology for Research, St. Peter’s Pontifical Institute, Bangalore, 2003; Haffner Paul, A Methodology for Term Papers and Theses, Rome, 1995; Sharma D.C. & Abraham K., The Art of Research Writing: A Handbook for Researchers & Guides, ATC, Bangalore, 2007.